## RaneNote## No Such Thing as Peak Volts dBu## Dennis Bohn, Rane Corporation## RaneNote 169, written January 2008, updated November 2012- Expressing Peak Voltages
- Crest Factor
- dBFS
- PPM
## IntroductionIt is incorrect to state peak voltage levels in dBu. It is common but it is wrong. It is wrong because the definition of dBu is a voltage reference point equal to 0.775 Vrms (derived from the old power standard of 0 dBm, which equals 1 mW into 600 Ω). Note that by definition it is an rms
## Expressing Peak VoltagesSo, how do you correctly state peak voltages? Here are some suggestions from a couple of industry pros:
Of course when dealing with real world audio signals, i.e., not sine waves, it gets a bit more complicated and involves what is called ## Crest FactorCrest factor is defined as the ratio of the peak (crest) value to the rms value of a waveform measured over a specified time interval. Sine waves have a crest factor of 1.4 (or 3 dB), since the peak value equals 1.414 times the rms value. Music has a wide crest factor of 4-10 (12 dB – 20 dB). This means that music peaks are 12 dB – 20 dB higher than the rms value — showing why headroom is so important in audio design — and why when you change a B&K meter (or any other brand rms and peak reading meter) from rms to peak reading on audio signals, the level goes up anywhere from 12 dB to 20 dB. Note that a square wave represents the extreme where the rms and peak levels are the same, equaling a crest factor of one.
## What about dBFS? Full scale therefore is the maximum signal level resolvable by a data converter — either an A/D or D/A. It is determined by the DC reference voltage used by the converter. Since this is a DC level it is a brickwall limit with no way over. Therefore all signal levels expressed in terms of dBFS are peak levels, and expressed as negative numbers (since the maximum is 0 dBFS). They should never be expressed in dBu, but rather in plain-Jane dB. For example, a level equal to -10 dB re dBFS means that the peak level is 10 dB below the maximum peak level and if this is an audio signal then the average level is 12 dB - 20 dB lower. See diagram below. ## Exception & ConfusionThe above describes the most popular usage, however it is technically incorrect. The “the rms voltage that corresponds with a sine wave whose positive peak value reaches the maximum positive digital value and whose negative peak reaches one LSB greater than the minimum negative digital value.” This means a full scale sine wave input would read +3 dBFS, and so would a full-scale square wave, and its rms value would equal +3 dBFS. Further, “Digital signal rms amplitude expressed as a level in decibels relative to full-scale amplitude (20 times the common logarithm of the amplitude over the full-scale amplitude [defined as the ‘rms amplitude of a 997 Hz sine wave in the digital domain whose positive peak value reaches the positive digital full scale, leaving the negative maximum code unused.’]). The golden rule is to never express analog signal levels in terms of dBFS. Follow this and you will not confuse anyone. ## What about PPM? The peak audio signals (as opposed to average audio signals, which use the VU meter). [While this is the popular belief, the meter does not actually measure “peaks.” It measures quasi-peaks based on an integration time of 10 ms—contrasting with a VU meter’s integration time of 300 ms, thus short peaks do not register on a PPM. Thanks to Richard L. Hess (www.richardhess.com) for this clarification]. The PPM augments the VU meter (originally called the VI or Since all PPM signal levels are peak (by definition) no confusion should result. If further signal level information is desired then it should be expressed as explained in the first paragraph, i.e., the signal peaks XX dB above YY dBu.
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